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VCD Unit 2 AOS 1

Technical drawing in context.

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to;

  • create presentation drawings that incorporate relevant technical drawing conventions and effectively communicate information and ideas for a selected design field.

What you will do

This task is from the field of environmental design. (According to the VCAA study design it may also be done in industrial design).

In this task you will learn how to transcribe information recorded from real spaces into technical drawings made to Australian Standards. Our task will focus on architectural plans and elevations, but can equally well focus on 3rd angle orthogonal drawing used in industrial design.

You will research the ways drawings are prepared for your target audience and the specific purpose for which they are made. 

Following your two dimensional drawings you will learn and implement the three dimensional drawing methods of 2 point perspective and planometric. 

This task does not focus on the whole design process. Nor does it require students to write their own brief. It is a technical and pictorial drawing skill and knowledge building task with emphasis on development and refinement of presentation drawings for the target audience. 

This task has been informed by the detailed example shown in the VCAA VCD Advice for Teachers 2018.

Quick menu

Model answer

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A sheet of architectural plans and elevations describing a kitchen and dining space to scale.
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A planometric drawing to depict the same kitchen dining space, drawn from the plan and elevations.
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Learning intentions

Learning intentions should be set at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals during the task.

Read through the content on this page. Discuss what you think could be learnt and form them into three 'learning intentions'.  Use sentences like, 'I will learn about making 3d drawings', or I will learn about 'media codes'.

Write your three learning intentions.

For advanced learning intentions, go with 3 different levels. 

  • 1 - What you will learn. (For example, the media code of camera describes the techniques camera operators use to record a scene)
  • 2 - How what you will learn can be used to create meaning or structure. (For example, camera techniques are combined with sound and/ or editing to create suspense).
  • 3 - How could your understanding of the learning be extended or related to other learnings. (For example, the use of camera has changed over the years and the invention of digital formats have allowed anyone to become cinema photographers)
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Success criteria

Success criteria should be negotiated between students and their teacher. The class group agrees about what is successful completion of the task. Identification of success criteria is done at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals.

Now that you are familiar with what you will learn in this task, it's time to lock in how you will be able to demonstrate that you know it, or can do it. 

Write three success criteria, using sentences like the examples in the next column.

I will demonstrate that I have mastered the learning by;

  • 1 - I Can identify all of the camera techniques used in the selected clip.
  • 2 - I can use a camera to film clips in the ways I have identified.
  • 3 - I can explain how camera is combined with other codes to create meaning in a narrative.
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Getting started

The brief

In this section we will examine what we need to do. This is written in a brief.

Brief

environmental design need

Depict a kitchen and breakfast space with plans and elevations to Australian Standards and to an appropriate scale and with 3 dimensional pictorial drawing methods. 

The target audience is young adult prospective apartment purchasers. 

The purpose is for depiction and advertising of the apartment space.

Research and understanding

Now that you have read the brief it's time to begin to learn about how we need to create these drawings and the needs of our target audience.

Plans and elevations

Our work will reference the Australian Standards as interpreted by the VCAA in the Technical Drawing Specifications Resource for VCD. Please use this guide.

Architects and environmental designers all use 2 dimensional drawings for their projects. These drawings are know as 'Plans and Elevations'. 

Each project will require many drawings. They will be at different scales and have different amounts of details, depending on the purpose. 

You can find more information about environmental drawing for Visual Communication Design by accessing the VCAA Technical Drawing Specifications 2018. Press the image at right to download a copy.

Understand the purpose

In this step we need to conduct some research to see what advertising drawings look like for homes similar to those we need to depict.

Conduct some broad research collecting images that depict kitchen and living spaces in new homes. You might find this is real estate sites, apartment sites, magazines, newspapers and on the internet. 

You will then be asked to describe the features you need to include in your drawing to ensure that you create drawings that suite your audience and purpose.

Living spaces depicted in brochures for new apartments and architet's drawings.

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A kitchen and living space depicted in an architect's drawing. (Mossastudio 2018).
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Architect's 3 dimensional view of a kitchen space. (Mossastudio 2018).
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Apartment plan in brochure for Oxley Apartment Collingwood.
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Computer render in brochure for Oxley Apartment Collingwood.
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How nice is this lovely wide 1 point perspective computer render? How spacious does it make this apartment feel? Apartment brochure for Oxley Apartment Collingwood.

Tasks

Research and investigation

Collect examples of two and three dimensional drawings that have been used for advertising and promotional purposes.

If possible, visit a display home, real estate agent or apartment display centre. 

Don't forget to think about whether they are suitable for the target audience shown in the brief.

Create 2 or 3 A3 pages of research and investigation. Annotate and reference your images.

Understand the needs

In your research pages, pin point the features included in plans, elevations and three dimensional images that you believe are necessary to meet the needs of both the audience and the purpose. Make sure you identify and describe at least 5 - 10 different features. These will become the guiding principles for your own drawings.

Examples of the features required may include:

  • Clear thick continuous lines for exterior walls,
  • Realistic eye level for interior views.
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Record and describe your space

In this section we divide into pairs. Each pair will record information for their partner. Each student will draw a space described by their partner. The purpose of arranging the task in this way is to emphasise the importance of accuracy not beauty when measuring and recording an architectural space.

Sizing it up

Often architects working in an office work collaboratively. This may entail different people working on different aspects of a project. Jobs like doing a measure up during a site visit may be done by someone other than the designing or drafting specialist. We will simulate this working environment.

Working in partners, we will create the information required for each student to depict a kitchen and/ or breakfast space. 

Work at home to measure up your kitchen and breakfast space. See task below for details on what kind of information will be required. As you go, try to be mindful that someone else will need to be able to 'read' your drawings. Include as much information, as clearly as you can.

I will give you examples of my kitchen space.

Doing a 'measure up'.

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Take plenty of photos of the space for your partner.
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Start sketching before you add any measurements. Try to get things in proportion.

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Next, add the major dimensions that will control the size of the large items in the room.
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Finish with the smaller dimensions like bench widths, stove and sink sizes. Don't forget to use dashed lines to indicate hidden lines and cupboards overhead.

tasks

Sizing it up - homework task

Make a series of sketch plans and elevations of your kitchen and/ or breakfast space that your partner will be able to use to draw it accurately. 

Take a series of photos to help them interpret the drawings.

Gather your information together. Photocopy it (you will need to retain your work for your assessment) and print your pictures so your partner can work on the task.

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2 dimensional representations

This section will include the technical drawing component of the Unit.

Plans and elevations

Referring to the 'Environmental design' section of the 'Technical Drawing Specifications Resource' you will use the information supplied to you by your partner to produce a set of plans and elevations to describe their kitchen and/ or breakfast space. 

You must choose and use an appropriate scale (as defined in the resource) and dimension your drawings as also shown.

Plans and elevations to describe the space

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Starting out on Adobe Illustrator, make a new A3 landscape file. Then begin to place your walls at a scale of 1:50. Take care to check thicknesses in the Technical Drawing Specifications Resource. I use a square to help set out other spaces to scale. You can see it in red on my drawing.
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When your plan is complete, add dimensions. Indicate all the relevant sizes for your partner.
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Next it's time to work on the elevations. I construct mine underneath a plan. The one on the left is in the natural orientation. To make the one on the right, I rotated the plan through 90 degrees. I also use heaps of guides to help me to align every detail properly.

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The completed sheet of Plan and two Elevations of my kitchen and breakfast space. Take special note of all the annotating information on and at the bottom of the sheet.

Tasks

Plans and elevations

Beginning with manual drawings, create a set of detailed plans and elevations of your partner's kitchen and/ or breakfast space. 

Refer to the 'Technical Drawing Specifications Resource' for scales, symbols and methods to set out your drawings. Take care to include all the features including;

correct line strengths and types,

  • symbols,
  • scale,
  • northpoint, 
  • other details as required.

Work manual to get things right, then for presentation drawings,  repeat your work on computer.

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3 dimensional pictorial drawings

In this section we use 3 dimensional drawing methods to create presentation drawings suited to the promotion and advertising of our space.

Perspective and paraline drawing

Often architects working in an office work collaboratively. This may entail different people working on different aspects of a project. Jobs like doing a measure up during a site visit may be done by someone other than the designing or drafting specialist. We will simulate this working environment.

Planometric drawing

Often architects working in an office work collaboratively. This may entail different people working on different aspects of a project. Jobs like doing a measure up during a site visit may be done by someone other than the designing or drafting specialist. We will simulate this working environment.

Planometric drawing on computer

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Beginning a planometric drawing by rotating a plan.
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Next, remove all the fills so only stroke remains.
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Jump on a new layer and working in the same scale as for your plan, raise all the heights. Check the Elevations for height information.
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The last step is to completely trace the drawing on a new layer! Trace it with shapes not lines. These will be used to fill in the rendering. The completed Planometric is a line drawing. Use white fills to fill areas that hide background details. Send them to the front to tidy up the drawing.

tasks

Planometric drawing

Complete a Planometric drawing of the interior space described in your Plans and Elevations. 

Follow the directions shown above.

You may need to do a preliminary version manually to visualise the space before you work on computer.

1 point perspective drawing

Often architects working in an office work collaboratively. This may entail different people working on different aspects of a project. Jobs like doing a measure up during a site visit may be done by someone other than the designing or drafting specialist. We will simulate this working environment.

The following images demonstrate how to use the perspective grid in Adobe Illustrator to assist in making a 1 point perspective. You don't have to use it, or even work digitally. This drawing can be done manually. I have just used it to show you the relationship between the plan, the elevations and the grid.

The nice thing about a 1 point is you can measure heights of objects from elevations kept to scale with the plan. Note the way I found the height of the main kitchen bench off the elevation on the right.

1 point perspective on computer

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Go back to your plan used for the Planometric drawing. Save the file as 'perspective' and then switch on the 1 point perspective grid. Move your plan into place.
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Use the 'free transform' tool to distort your (grouped) plan to match the lines in the perspective grid. This tool works in the same way as the one in Adobe Photoshop.
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Move your elevation into place. Scale it (but be careful not to distort the proportions) so it sits in the right place left to right.
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Now move, scale then distort the other elevation. Be careful to align the corners in the right places.
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With the elevations in place we can pull in blue ruler guides to help form the main objects. Note where they extend from the plan. I put in red receding lines to the vanishing point, and do my objects on a separate layer in a different colour.
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Continue developing all of your objects, referencing their position from the plan and elevations.
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Add the walls, fill the shapes and then turn the whole thing back to black.
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To finish, turn off the perspective grid and print.

tasks

1 point perspective drawing

Make a 1 Point Perspective drawing of your space. Choose one of these following methods;

  • Manual = construct a horizon line and vanishing point and visualise the plan onto a constructed floor space.
  • Digital + manual = use an Adobe Illustrator file as a base for the Illustrator Perspective grid. Copy your PLAN and ELEVATION into the file, distort them using the free transform tool, print then construct the perspective manually.
  • Digital = use an Adobe Illustrator file as a base for the Illustrator Perspective grid. Copy your PLAN and ELEVATION into the file, distort them using the free transform tool, then construct the perspective with the line and pen tool.

Depending on your abilities and facilities a choice can be made.

Rendering

Often architects working in an office work collaboratively. This may entail different people working on different aspects of a project. Jobs like doing a measure up during a site visit may be done by someone other than the designing or drafting specialist. We will simulate this working environment.

Enhancing form, materials and shade with rendering.

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Creating 'fill's for each shape in Adobe Illustrator.
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I first copy in the base drawing onto a new layer in Adobe Photoshop. This helps me align all the shapes first. Then copy and paste every single shape into a separate new layer in Photoshop.

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I copy each layer that I want to shade and select it with the magic wand tool to define the area to shade. Finish off with a layer of white highlights and another of dark grey lines. Remember to name every layer. It really helps keep track of everything.
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The completed rendering should show off all the colour and form of the original space.

tasks

Rendering

The purpose of the rendering task is to enhance form, represent cast shadows and surface materials. This exercise may be done manually or digitally - the only catch is that the assessment criteria does call for manual and digital work. The two ways to complete this task are;

  • Manual = Work from a line print of your Planometric drawing. Use colour pencils to render light shade and materials textures.
  • Digital = (As shown above) Continue on from the Planometric drawing done in the previous task. On a new layer, trace all line work to shapes, fill the shapes with nearest colours or tones. Import (copy and paste to pixels) all the shapes, to separate layers in Adobe Photoshop. Continue to render light and shade. Use masks to import textures. 
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Evaluation and deeper learning

In this section we will think about the learning we have done. We will review the main topics and evaluate our learning. Follow the steps in the tasks shown here to prepare your folio for presentation and grading.
What have I learnt?

Answer the following questions (on paper or computer);

  1. What skills and understandings have you developed most in this task?
  2. Why do you think renderings can be used in preference to photos to promote homes to members of a target audience?
  3. What does the 'horizon line' actually mean in perspective drawing?
  4. What computer programs have you used in this task?
  5. What methods have you used?
Putting it together

Find where you wrote up what you thought the success criteria might be. Check that you have done something for all of the steps you wrote down.

Print final and organise your folio for submission.

Check the assessment criteria below to see if you have prepared your folio for each criteria. If not, take the time to complete each section.

Hand up your work on the due date as instructed.

tasks

Evaluation and deeper learning
Complete the evaluation, deeper learning and rating tasks as shown above.

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VCD Unit 2 AOS 1
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Assessment criteria

The extent to which the student:

  1. Uses two and three dimensional drawing methods and conventions, to create presentation drawings to suit target audience, purpose and context of the brief,
  2. Demonstrates a sound understanding of the conventions associated with plans and elevations including use of scale, dimensions, symbols, etc.,
  3. Selects and applies three dimensional paraline and perspective methods to represent form, proportion and scale,
  4. Uses manual and/or digital methods for the development and refinement of presentation drawings, 
  5. Selects and applies methods for rendering to enhance form, shade and surface materials in three dimensional drawings,
  6. Applies practices that fulfil legal obligations in visual communications when using images belonging to others.

Please note:

To achieve good marks in criteria based assessment you must remember to include some work for each part of the task required. Spread your time evenly across the task.