VCD Unit 3 AOS 1.4 Industrial design practice

Practice industrial design.

Outcome 1

(Full Outcome statement for the six part Area of Study)

On completion of this unit the student should be able to;

  • Create visual communications for specific contexts, purposes
    and audiences that are informed by their analysis of existing visual communications in the three design fields.

What you will do

This task is from the field of industrial design. 

This is the fourth task in the six part Area of Study 1 in Year 12 Visual Communication Design.

In this task we customise a Segway X2 personal transport device for Kakadu National Park using the information gained in the third task. We then revise and learn the drawing methods for industrial design; 3rd angle orthogonal, perspective and isometric.

There will be three different practice tasks. One for each design field.

Read below for instructions.

Quick menu

Model answer

A 3rd Angle Orthogonal (to VCAA Australian Standards) of the additions I have designed to be made to the Segway X2 in response to the brief below.
A presentation with a rendered sketch of the Segway constructed manually and finished in coloured pencils to enhance form.

Learning intentions

Learning intentions should be set at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals during the task.

Read through the content on this page. Discuss what you think could be learnt and form them into three 'learning intentions'.  Use sentences like, 'I will learn about making 3d drawings', or I will learn about 'media codes'.

Write your three learning intentions.

For advanced learning intentions, go with 3 different levels. 

  • 1 - What you will learn. (For example, the media code of camera describes the techniques camera operators use to record a scene)
  • 2 - How what you will learn can be used to create meaning or structure. (For example, camera techniques are combined with sound and/ or editing to create suspense).
  • 3 - How could your understanding of the learning be extended or related to other learnings. (For example, the use of camera has changed over the years and the invention of digital formats have allowed anyone to become cinema photographers)

Success criteria

Success criteria should be negotiated between students and their teacher. The class group agrees about what is successful completion of the task. Identification of success criteria is done at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals.

Now that you are familiar with what you will learn in this task, it's time to lock in how you will be able to demonstrate that you know it, or can do it. 

Write three success criteria, using sentences like the examples in the next column.

I will demonstrate that I have mastered the learning by;

  • 1 - I Can identify all of the camera techniques used in the selected clip.
  • 2 - I can use a camera to film clips in the ways I have identified.
  • 3 - I can explain how camera is combined with other codes to create meaning in a narrative.

Getting started

Our first task is to review our understanding of Kakadu National Park and the brief.



Personal transportation device

Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory requires an individualized design that captures a significant feature of the animals, landscape or indigenous culture of the park, to be added to the Segway X2 personal transportation devices they will purchase. They are intended to be hired by people with medium to high physical ability, young adults. They will be used on off-road walking and cycling tracks within the park for tours of up to one hour.

The constraints and expectations include;

  • The added design may be two or three dimensional. It may involve minor modifications to the Segway X2 but may not interfere with the wheels, central structure and handle piece as these are integral with the Segway’s design and operation.
  • Should look like or use aesthetic cues from either animals, landscape or indigenous culture of the park.
  • Contain a small storage area/ basket for client’s day backpack, first-aid kit and water bottle.

The presentation formats required for the client are;

  • 3rd angle orthogonal drawing to VCAA Australian Standards and made to an appropriate scale for this design field
  • A rendered isometric drawing showing the design as it would be fixed to the Segway


Review your understanding of the part and its tracks by watching the videos below. Consider how your Segway might work in these kinds of spaces.

Research rock art, bark painting or animals of Kakadu as inspiration for the design you will create for the Segway.

How do they attract our attention and hold it?

Kakadu National Park, Kakadu Vacation Travel Guide | Expedia
Kakadu National Park in 4K

tasks 1

1.1 Review Kakadu

Refresh your understanding of the park by watching parts of the videos above.

1.2 Park features

Make one annotated page of memorable features that you think you might be able to use to inspire your Segway design. Choose pictures form arts, textures, plans, animals, landscapes.





Time for a skill-building workshop on two-point perspective drawing.

Vanishing points?

Let's take a break...

Industrial designers are good at their craft because they can draw. And when I say they can draw, I mean they can draw well. Really well. Take a look at the computer assisted sketch on the right, you'll see what I mean.

But, before we get started I need to hit you with a question. In the fantastic picture of the Mercedes here, can you see any vanishing points? No. I can't. So the question is, Why don't industrial designers use vanishing points when they draw in two-point perspective?

Read the captions under the pictures below to find out why...

Mercedes S-Class


Reference: ( mercedes-benz-s-class-coupe-design-sketches-released/)

Big object - close vanishing points

Reason one is because if you want to draw big enough to see and you use vanishing point on the same page the vanishing points are too close in proportion to the form. This creates unnatural distortion in the lower angles.

Small object - far vanishing points

So, you want to make a more realistic projection of the form. You need to draw it much smaller in relation to the distance between the vanishing points. Now, it’s too small. Reason number two.

Small object - far vanishing points

This is why designers draw in perspective without vanishing points. Because realistic vanishing points are a long way from actual objects (at least one is). The designer wants it to be big enough to work with on the paper.

How do they do it?

Before we get into our two point perspective workshop, watch the following videos in this order.

Product Design Sketching with construction lines

Learn how to create complex forms with construction lines.

How To Sketch Like A Product Designer

Great examples of draw forms and product designers sketches and tips.

How to draw a car - designing the Lexus LF-SA

A good sketch journey for a car – manual to digital. Vector to raster.

tasks 2

2.1 Consider ideas
Look at the pictures showing cubes and vanishing points. Consider this information about the relationship between an object's size and the distance between vanishing points.
2.2 Watch the masters

Watch the videos above. Consider the techniques shown.

It's all in the action

To learn how to draw in perspective you have to learn how to draw straight lines. Here is a tip. Let’s explore the movements of our arm first.

We are given three compasses. Look at how they work.



We can turn our wrist in a tight arc.


We can turn our forearm in a medium arc.


We can turn our upper arm from the shoulder in a big arc.
Now all this is good if we want to draw curves. Try it. But for perspective we have to try to turn these compasses off. To draw vertical and horizontal lines, try this instead.



Keep your wrist locked. Move your hand away from you at the same time extending your whole arm away from you, pivoting from your shoulder.



Now with your wrist locked again move your forearm from left to right keeping your elbow almost locked and extending your upper arm outwards. Again pivoting from your shoulder.

So the action is to draw from your shoulder, not your wrist. Most people find this easier if you are standing up. Try making straight lines now. Not just horizontal and vertical ones, but diagonal ones as well.

tasks 3

3.1 Making arcs
Practice making arcs in my top examples to become aware of your human compasses.
3.2 straight lines
Practice making straight lines as shown by locking your wrist in the lower examples.

Making fan shapes

To draw without vanishing points we have to learn how to see groups of lines as creating a kind of ‘fan’ shapes. Then, depending on your point of view, you have to draw you forms using nice groups of fans. These fan shapes are the receding lines. Look at the following breakdown of a drawing using fanned groups of lines.

Box shapes

You will be familiar with a group of boxes constructed with lines extending to vanishing points.

Construction lines

Here is what the boxes look like as construction lines. I want to focus on the bottom box for the examples of how to draw with groups of fanned lines.

Are you ready to loose your training wheels? To ditch the vanishing points?

left fan

Here is the first group coming in from the left vanishing point.

Right fan

Here is another group coming in from the right vanishing point.


Both fans combined.

To finish

Here are the vertical lines added.

tasks 4

4.1 Making fans
Try making groups of lines that look like they would meet at a vanishing point – but don’t because it’s off the page.
4.2 Combining fans to boxes
Now create a heap of boxes on your page by combining groups of fanned lines and dropping in verticals.
4.3 Changing eye level
Lastly, try drawing boxes above, below and across the horizon line as shown in the first example picture.

Drawing ellipses in perspective

Shortly we will be drawing a Segway. But, hang-on it’s got wheels! On no. How are we going to be able to draw wheels? In fact, they are constructed in a similar way to those made in isometric but with less detail. Instead of using complex diagonal lines on squares, we are going to get by with locating an axle, a major axis and a minor axis.

Below are three pictures of a Segway like toy I made with Meccano. Beneath these is one I have analylsed to show you what lines and forms we have to locate to draw it.


Seeing the lines in perspective forms


There are two rectilinear forms to this machine. There is a large horizontal box for the floor and motors. The other is a tall box for the handle assembly. Locate the tall box in the centre with diagonal lines.


The red lines indicate the construction lines needed for wheels. First, draw in an axle (shown dotted). Then create major axes for your ellipses. The front one is also shown dotted. In perspective, the major axis is at 90 degrees to the axel. Finally make sure your wheels are the same size by drawing receding lines to link them.

Here is the sketch I made free-hand from live observation using the Meccano Segway as my model. It took me about 45 minutes to complete!

tasks 5

5.1 Body, axles and wheels in two-point

Complete your two-point perspective workshop with a challenge.

Draw this Segway or even a mug on it's side in two-point perspective. Draw the body of the form first. Then calculate an axle or centre in a mug. Ensure that the major axis you are constructing for your ellipse is a right angles to the axle, then sketch it in.


Design and present

Kakadu Segway X2

In this section of the task you will complete your work for assessment. This will be to make the designs and presentation formats required in the brief above.

Visualise ideas and concepts

We know how to draw a Segway in perspective. Great work! Now we have to redesign one to entice audiences to explore the art and  Kakadu National Park.

I initially explored adding a simple flat form to the Segway to display indigenous art.
I then got interested in adding a crocodile form to the front and back. I chose this idea.

tasks 6

6.1 Visualise ideas

Use free-hand two-point perspective to generate a range of ideas for a Segway to by hired out at your café/ information centre in Kakadu National Park. Annotate your design thinking as you go, describing the use of elements and principles and evaluating form in relation to function. Identify your preferred idea.

Develop your preferred idea

Select your preferred idea.Annotate your page to show your selection

I have supplied a 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing of a simplified Segway X2 for you to sketch onto. It's not one hundred percent accurate but it should give you a good base from which you can design.

Download an A3 image of this drawing to develop you ideas before you convert your ideas into technical drawings.

Click on the image at right to get your own copy at A3 size.

More technically

I realised that I needed to construct my crocodile head from straight lines to plot the form accurately in isometric. I did a quick search for ‘crocodile head mask’ and came up with a heap of photos I could use for inspiration.
From the mask idea I began to simplify the form even more. I used freehand isometric and orthogonal views to cross reference how I was forming up the head.
Once I was pretty confident I had a solution for the crocodile, I sketched it on top of the 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing I have given you above.
Lastly, I then constructed the crocodile head in Illustrator in orthogonal. This would then be used on the completed orthogonal drawing in the next stage.

tasks 7

7.1 Develop technical concept

Save and print the A3 version of the Segway X2 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing for reference and sketching on.

Develop the design for the addition you will make to the Segway using two and three-dimensional drawing methods (isometric and orthogonal). Ensure that you can draw it confidently before commencing your formal 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing.


The Study Design requires us to 'make and document design decisions that are informed by the analysis of existing visual communications and make connections between them' (VCAA VCD Study Design, 2018-22, p22).

You already discussed changes you would make to shipping containers to make them more suitable for life in the tropics at the end of the last assessment task.

What is required now is to explain the decisions you are making and how they are connected with your understanding of existing designs. 

Annotate your drawings consistently to explain the design decisions you are making.

Presentation drawings

3rd Angle Orthogonal Drawing

Industrial designers are required to produce technical drawings for construction of objects. Our study nominates 3rd angle orthogonal drawing as the two-dimensional drawing method to record form, dimensions and other information for industrial design.

You will become proficient in construction of 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing by creating one of your developed concept for the additions you have designed for the Segway X2.

Take a good look at the drawing below. I have formed the additions over the Segway X2 in each view.

At right is my completed 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing of the additions designed for the Segway in accordance with the brief.

Check the tasks below for instructions.


tasks 8

8.1 Copy drawing

Using my 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing of the Segway X2 as reference, produce your own copy of this drawing in Illustrator. Use the scale of 1:10 and a stroke thickness of 0.1 and .025 mm. You may simplify my drawing a bit to produce one a bit more quickly. Don’t worry about smaller details. Place all elements of the actual Segway on one layer. Dimensions and labels will be done later on separate layers.

8.2 Modify Segway

Print your completed drawing as reference. Lock the Segway layer then begin to add your modifications and additions on a new layer. You may need to create fills in white to hide the base drawing below when you are done.

8.3 Complete drawing

Ensure you have adhered to Australian Standards for line styles and weights. Create a new layer and add centres, centre lines, dimensions, labels, symbol and title box. You do not have to add too many dimensions, just overall dimensions and some intermediate ones. Review your drawing critically to ensure that it is finished correctly.

Isometric Drawing

The second presentation drawing in this folio is a rendered isometric drawing of the Segway for Kakadu National Park.

Look at the steps I have shown below to inform the way you can construct yours. I began by drawing the central box part of the Segway then adding my crocodile additions. Finally, I added the wheels and other details.

Why blue? Designers used to use cyan lines for 'mark-ups' for camera in the '70s because the lines did not appear in black and white photos of artwork. I have seen designers use blue now as it is a softer line than grey lead. I guess I just wanted to try it

I began by drawing the central box of the Segway. I drew a centre line to work to. Then I formed up the additions that attach to the box. I doubled the scale to 1:5 but I don’t recommend this as Isometric templates are not big enough for the wheels!
I then moved to the head. Having it all in orthogonal gave me all the dimensions I needed for form it accurately.
I added the wheels. See note regarding scale above. Then the final details.
The completed drawing rendered in Derwent colour pencils.

tasks 9

9.1 Isometric pro

Using the information recorded in your 3rd Angle Orthogonal drawing, construct a manually produced isometric projection of the Segway you have designed for Kakadu National Park.

9.2 Rendering

Render your drawing in colour to enhance the form. Before you start, establish and show the position and direction of light source.

9.3 presentation

Scan your drawing and place it on a presentation sheet in Illustrator to match your orthogonal drawing..


Evaluation and deeper learning

In this section we will think about the learning we have done. We will review the main topics and evaluate our learning. Follow the steps in the tasks shown here to prepare your folio for presentation and grading.
What have I learnt?

Quite a bit I would have thought. Think back to what the section on two-point perspective taught you. Do you feel more confident in your drawing and your technical abilities now?

Putting it together

Find where you wrote up what you thought the success criteria might be. Check that you have done something for all of the steps you wrote down.

Print final and organise your written answers and visual diary for submission.

Check the assessment criteria below to see if you have prepared your work for each criteria. If not, take the time to complete it.

Hand up your work on the due date as instructed.


Evaluation and deeper learning
Evaluate your folio for accuracy and completion.

Assessment criteria

Below is shown a broad indication of the evidence a student should show.

Click here to download a complete assessment rubric for this task

The extent to which the student demonstrates:

  1. Techniques for gaining attention and maintaining engagement of audiences using visual language
  2. Drawing methods to visualise ideas and concepts
  3. two-dimensional (plans and elevations) and three-dimensional (perspective: one and two point) and paraline (planometric) drawing methods to represent forms
  4. Methods of converting two-dimensional representation to three-dimensional representation drawing and the reverse
  5. Technical drawing c­­onventions appropriate for specified purposes, including layout, dimensions, labels, symbols and lines
  6. Techniques for creating visual communications using manual and digital methods
  7. Methods, materials and media used for different visual communications
  8. Purposes of visual communications, including to advertise, promote, depict, teach, inform, identify and guide

Please note:

To achieve good marks in criteria based assessment you must remember to include some work for each part of the task required. Spread your time evenly across the task.