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VCD Unit 3 AOS 3 Design industry practice

Design industry practice.

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to;

  • discuss the practices of a contemporary designer from each of the design fields and explain factors that influence these practices.

What you will do

This task is from the fields of communication, environmental and industrial design. 

This is a theory task where students will investigate the ways designers are employed, how they use the design process as it applies in each design field, how they collaborate with other specialists to inform and realise their visions, what factors and influences shape the decisions they make regarding form, function and aesthetics and the legal requirements that must be observed as a creative and how these obligations affect the ways they work.

In this task we look at case studies of designers working the three fields. We will explore each using lenses described above. We will also investigate broader theory content as it applies to enlarge on the case studies.

The learning activities on this page will be submitted for formative assessment prior to the graded assessment task. The rubric, which can be downloaded at the end of this page, will be used for formative assessment.

The graded assessment task for this outcome will be a short answer test in class.

Read below for instructions.

Quick menu

Model answer

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A student example of processing the learning from designers case studies. Jessie Yin, 2020.
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Learning intentions

Learning intentions should be set at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals during the task.

Read through the content on this page. Discuss what you think could be learnt and form them into three 'learning intentions'.  Use sentences like, 'I will learn about making 3d drawings', or I will learn about 'media codes'.

Write your three learning intentions.

For advanced learning intentions, go with 3 different levels. 

  • 1 - What you will learn. (For example, the media code of camera describes the techniques camera operators use to record a scene)
  • 2 - How what you will learn can be used to create meaning or structure. (For example, camera techniques are combined with sound and/ or editing to create suspense).
  • 3 - How could your understanding of the learning be extended or related to other learnings. (For example, the use of camera has changed over the years and the invention of digital formats have allowed anyone to become cinema photographers)
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Success criteria

Success criteria should be negotiated between students and their teacher. The class group agrees about what is successful completion of the task. Identification of success criteria is done at the commencement of each unit, then at regular intervals.

Now that you are familiar with what you will learn in this task, it's time to lock in how you will be able to demonstrate that you know it, or can do it. 

Write three success criteria, using sentences like the examples in the next column.

I will demonstrate that I have mastered the learning by;

  • 1 - I Can identify all of the camera techniques used in the selected clip.
  • 2 - I can use a camera to film clips in the ways I have identified.
  • 3 - I can explain how camera is combined with other codes to create meaning in a narrative.
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Background to design

In this outcome we will take a look at how designers work in their industry. We will look at case studies to find out how the design process has been applied in different ways in the three design fields.

We will see how designers are employed then explore the factors that shape design today. We will reflect on how target audiences and society’s preferences are changing designers’ priorities.

How did we get here?

Take a look at the two videos below. Try to imagine, what were the priorities of the designers. What was designed to realise the outcomes shown in the videos? Is design today the same as it was fifty years ago?

Launch Apollo 8 Saturn V - Awesome!

When Trees Meet Buildings | The B1M

A matter of priorities

Much of the priority of designers in the last century seems to have been based around creating bigger, better, faster, simpler visual communications that would ultimately make the world, and maybe even the universe a smaller place. All this travel and consumption have taken their toll on our planet. In the 1970s a new movement was born. That brought about a heightened awareness for the environment and beginnings of the sustainability movement.

Today designers’ challenges are different. Technology plays an integral role. Web based communication, desk top publishing, document storage and sharing speeds up design. Everyone can make a poster now. But with this added speed and mobility, new challenges to ownership and copyright restrictions emerge. Design is everywhere. Design is egalitarian and open to women and men alike. Design is difference but never as difference as it is today.

Let’s begin. I have selected three case studies. Your teacher may use these or different ones.

Watch three case studies first to understand how the design process is applied differently in different contexts for design.

I have chosen three video case studies. Teachers may select others if these are not available.

Environmental design
Industrial design
Communnication design

tasks 1

Design background
1.1 Design case studies

Watch the videos above when your teacher has given you access to them.

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roles and responsibilities

in the design process

Our next section will examine the role of design process, the brief and key personnel. We will also look at how designers use other people to help with development and resolution of design outcomes.

The stages of the design process used by visual communication designers

The role of the brief in documenting the parameters of clients’ needs

The distinguishing characteristics of different design fields

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Design process

Design is an organic thing. There is no one way to design. However, there has been a process that has been mapped. This is called the design process. It is represented in by a circle because having a need leads to a design which can ultimately create a new need. And so, it begins again.

Take a look at my Design Process Part 1 page and read the explanation of the VCAA design process.

Press the link on the right to visit this page.

Brief

The brief is also organic can come in a variety to forms in a variety of time frames. You will have already seen that the designers in the case studies did not simply receive a brief from a client but they were involved in creating and refining the brief. If you read the design process page you learnt about the ‘fuzzy front end’ for design. This means that the brief and initial research come together organically as a designer discovers and defines a problem.

Characteristics of design fields

As you know each field of design has similarities with others. Each works to innovate in their field. However, there are differences between them. A graphic designer communicates different information differently from an architect. In addition, they learn and use different methods and skills. Below is a picture to show how three design fields converge and yet remain separate, at the same time.

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A diagram to plot the unique, shared and common skills in each design field.

You can download a pdf of this image to print for the task below by clicking on it.

tasks 2

Design process and roles
2.1 Design process

View the VCAA design process. List the stages as subheadings. Choose one of the designers’ case studies. List one skill or kind of work they did for each stage.

2.2 Getting a brief

What was the form and role of the brief in one the designers’ case studies. Explain in one paragraph how the brief originated and was developed. Did it come from the client or the client’s agent or employee? How many stages did the brief go through? What collaboration between client and designer was involved in determining the brief?

2.3 Analyse design field skills

Print a copy of the pdf linked from the image above. Record skills, methods and/ or processes that are common, shared or unique for in each design field. Alternatively, simply use these subheadings and write it up;

Common skills

Skills, methods or processes common between all fields

    • -
    • -

Shared skills

Skills, methods or processes shared between industrial and environmental design

    • -
    • -

Skills, methods or processes shared between environmental and communication design

    • -
    • -

Skills, methods or processes shared between communication and industrial design

    • -
    • -

Unique skills

Skills, methods or processes only found in industrial design

    • -
    • -

Skills, methods or processes only found in environmental design

    • -
    • -

Skills, methods or processes only found in communication design

    • -
    • -

the roles and responsibilities of designers, specialists and clients in the design and production of visual communications

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Specialists that assist in the design process

Key terms

  • Designer
  • Client
  • Specialists and what they do
  • communication
  • collaboration

In this area of study, we work with some key terms. The ones shown above refer to people who have different jobs (roles and responsibilities) during the design process.

  • A designer is a thinker, innovator, arranger, creator, author, artist, technician and communicator.
  • A client is the owner or commissioner of a communication need
  • A specialist is a person who has equipment and resources and/ or knowledge and skills beyond that of a designer, whom the designer employs to build overall capacity in the development, refinement and/ or resolution of a design solution.

Specialists explained

On the right you will find a link to a brief presentation about specialists in the design process. Click to watch. Each slide goes for 25 seconds.

tasks 3

Specialists
3.1 Update your knowledge

Watch the video above. Describe what a specialist is and give an example of one.

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How designers work

In this section we will explore how designers are employed. This is important because the way they work for clients affects their rights and ownership of the creative work they produce.

the roles and responsibilities of designers, specialists and clients in the design and production of visual communications

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Employment as a designer

Designers work in a range of ways for clients. You can imagine that there are many ways to earn a living in any field. One can work for a company or try to make money by selling your skills online. As you can imagine each employment scenario or situation, has different outcomes. One important consideration is the fact that designers generate original creative content. This is called Intellectual Property (IP) and will be covered later. The main issue is: When a designer designs something who gets to own and keep the design? In summary, there are several things that can be affected by different employment (contract) arrangements for designers. Some of these things include;

  • Job security, entitlements and relationships with clients
  • Creative freedom and independence
  • Attribution and IP, $$$
  • Flexibility for change

Ways designers are employed

  • In house
  • Studio
  • Freelance
    • Contracting IP to be transferred to client as part of the arrangement
    • Contracting IP to be transferred to client for a specific use and/ or duration
    • Working for free to client but retaining IP and paid by royalties (a $ share of sales)

You will notice that I only put sub dots on the ‘freelance’ category. This is because it is only as a freelancer that a designer has control over their IP.

Summary of considerations regarding employment and contracts

Definition
Job security, entitlements and relationships with clients
Creative freedom and independence
Attribution and IP, $$$
Flexibility for change
Inhouse

Designer works in a non-design company to design for their products or publications.

Full or part-time ongoing secure job with holidays and entitlements. Client is another employee.

Little creative freedom, need to follow ‘house style’. Not able to find jobs independently.

Usually no attribution or credit given for IP. Designer does not retain © of IP. Fair to good steady income.

Have to leave the job to change circumstances.

Studio

Designer works in a design office or agency with other creatives.

May be permanent or short-term contract. Only principal, senior designer or art director sets projects and relates with client.

Has more creative freedom but usually follows advice of principal designer or art director. May have to follow client’s or ‘house style’. May be given some creative freedom within parameters.

Attribution or credit given for IP may be individual or part of a project team. Designer does not retain © of IP. Fair to good income.

Have to leave the job to change circumstances.

Freelance:

Contracting IP to be transferred to client.

A Freelance designer contracts to non-design and design companies to design for a specified project.

May relate with principal, art director or client directly.

Has most creative freedom although client retains right of veto. Designer may bring ‘own personal style’ to the project.

Designer is attributed for IP. Designer does not retain © of IP. Possibly good income but no entitlements.

Each separate project is a different employment arrangement so is flexible.

Freelance:

Contracting IP to be transferred to client for a specific use and/ or duration.

A Freelance designer contracts to non-design and design companies to design for a specified project.

May relate with principal, art director or client directly.

Has most creative freedom although client retains right of veto. Designer may bring ‘own personal style’ to the project.

Designer is attributed for IP. Designer signs over © of IP for time then gets it back. Possibly good income but no entitlements.

Each separate project is a different employment arrangement so is flexible.

Freelance:

Working for free to client but retaining IP and paid by royalties (a $ share of sales)

A Freelance designer contracts to non-design and design companies to design for a specified project.

May relate with principal, art director or client directly.

Has most creative freedom although client retains right of veto. Designer may bring ‘own personal style’ to the project.

Designer is attributed for IP. Designer retains © of IP. Risky. Income derived from sales and no entitlements.

Each separate project is a different employment arrangement so is flexible.

tasks 4

Employment as a designer
The answers to this task will be done in the HOT SOLO Classify map
in section Tasks 6.
4.1 Relationship with clients and specialists

Complete the SOLO Classify mind-map to explain the role and relationship with designer on one of the designers’ case studies.

*Note: This task will be done in the SOLO Classify section below.

4.2 Working in design

Explain how one of the designers were contracted to their client in Task 6.

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Forces

That shape design

Our next section will focus on factors that shape design. These are aesthetic, functional needs of a brief as well as social, cultural, economic, financial and legal considerations.

the practices of contemporary designers from the communication, environmental and industrial design fields

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Where did design come from?

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Rock art at Nourlangie Rock Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia.

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Blacksmith Dean-Wilson working.

(https://www.dean-wilsoniron.com.au/blog/latest-news/ keeping-the-brisbane-blacksmithing-craft-alive)

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Helene Rother at work designing the interior of a Nash Motors car in the 1950s.

(https://timeline.com/ helene-rother-64363eb9f8aa)

Brief history of how design began

A history of design usually starts at ancient cave painting. This is because this marks the beginning of humans recording their ideas and experiences. The first recordings were not in writing but in pictures. Enter visual communication.

However, cave painting is not relevant for this outcome. What is relevant to our understanding of design is being able to split two human practices. These are thinking and making.

One of the most important events in human history, and hence our understanding of the birth of design, is the Industrial Revolution. This took place from the late 1700s and lasted until mid 1800s. It is important to us because the Industrial Revolution brought about change in who was involved in the two processes – thinking and making. Before this revolution, people lived in villages and towns which were largely self-sufficient. Each village had a collection of small practical businesses including blacksmiths, furniture makers, etc. A key characteristic of the ways these businesses worked was that the person who had the tools and skills to work hot steel (blacksmith) was the same person who decided what was being made and what shape it would take. That is; the designer and the maker were the same person. Designs were largely conceived in the context of how they would be made and used.

The social and economic change brought about by the introductions of steam powered machines led to the creation of factories and movement of large quantities of people into cities to work the factories. Apart from the way this changed human interaction, building things in factories with machines meant that businesses needed two kinds of people. Firstly, they needed people who could think up new products and they needed people who could make them. Thus, the designer and the maker became two different people and the field of design was born. The designer is a thinker and the maker is a doer.

This is not the end point for design. It is only a stage in its evolution. The process of environmental design, where the people who design are different from those who excavate and build is ancient. Industrial design as a profession was born of the Industrial Revolution. Communication design emerged with the proliferation of products that needed differentiation and brand recognition as a result of large stores setting up in developing cities like London and Paris in the late 1800s.

The first Industrial Revolution was about steel and steam power. The second seen largely in the late 19th and early 20th century is about electrification and assembly line manufacture. The Third Industrial revolution is of course, the digital and nuclear revolution, which took place in the latter years of the 20th Century.

If designers in the mid 20th century were concerned with things like getting a rocket to the moon, making cars that look like planes, chairs that look like sculptures, public housing schemes that fit the most people in the smallest space and pens that can write upside down, what are today’s designers concerned with?

The question is, what will design look as we enter the fourth Industrial Revolution? Artificial intelligence, cloud computing, hybrid, convergent media streams, on-line shopping and working from home with Google assistant.

Take a look at these brief videos to understand how design changed in 100 years.

Design in a nutshell 1-6/6

Below are a range of simple videos that take us through the wonderful history of design over the last hundred or so years. Watch them all. They give you a good look back so you can think about the future.

The Open Universities Australia.

Gothic Revival: Design in a Nutshell (1/6)

Arts and Crafts: Design in a Nutshell (2/6)

Bauhaus: Design in a Nutshell (3/6)

Modernism: Design in a Nutshell (4/6)

American Industrial Design: Design in a Nutshell (5/6)

History & the Arts – Postmodernism: Design in a Nutshell (6/6)

tasks 5

The past, present and future of design
5.1 What is design for you?

Define the role of a designer in your own words.

5.2 society’s preferences

Define what might be meant by the term ‘society’s preferences’.

5.3 Do designers change our world?

Have designers changed society its preferences? What has changed? What will change more…..

5.4 Is the world changing design?

Do you think the role of a designer will remain the same as it is now? Do you think it will become more or less important? If so, how?

The processes and practices used for collaborating between designers, specialists and clients when presenting design directions, proposals and final presentations to clients

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Bringing our learning together

Designers, specialists and clients are involved together in all phases of the design process. Each plays a role when they communicate effectively and work collaboratively to conceive ideas, develop them and present final presentations. You will have seen in the video case studies that each are interconnected, especially in our contemporary world where communication is aided by web-based digital applications.

One way of visualising this is through a HOT SOLO Classify map. Here is an example.

Where did design come from?

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The HOT SOLO Classify map.

(www.http//pamhook.com)

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Completed student example. Vivian Luh, 2020.

tasks 6

Process case studies
6.1 Classify map

Choose one of the designers’ case studies in the videos you watched. Complete a HOT SOLO Classify map to explain the roles and responsibilities of client, designer and specialists. Use the template and examples above as a guide.

In the 'client' section of your 'Classify map' explain how the designer was contracted to their client. Refer to specific aspects of the project in the video when you explain the benefits and draw backs of their contract. You may use the table above to support your answer.

Information regarding employment as a designer is in the section directly above Tasks 4.

Evaluation techniques employed by designers throughout the design and production of visual communications

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

How do we test designs?

When a mock-up, prototype or product is made it needs to be tested and evaluated against the constraints and expectations of a design brief. There are many ways for designers to test ideas. Some tests are formative (to give information about how to improve a design) and some are summative (to find out if a design works). Tests can be performed to the client, other designers in the studio, sample audience members, real audience members.

Some ways to test and evaluate designs include;

  • Pitching them to a client
  • Place the design in a real context and test it against a criteria-based score sheet with real or simulated audience members
  • Convene focus groups comprised of designers or real or simulated audience members
  • Market research surveys

tasks 7

Testing designs
7.1 Test and evaluate

Explain how a design in each of the three case studies was tested and evaluated. In your answer discuss;

  • what was tested? (a drawing, a model, a prototype, the final design)
  • at what stage of the design process was the test and evaluation conducted?
  • explain what aspect of the design was being tested
  • how were the results measured?
  • how did the test results contribute to the success of the design process?

Decisions made during the design and production of visual communications to fulfil a brief, including the choice of materials, methods, media, design elements and design principles

Social, cultural, ethical, legal, financial and environmental factors influencing designers’ decisions

Social, cultural, ethical, legal, financial and environmental factors influencing designers’ decisions

(VCAA VCE VCD Study Design 2018-22 Key Knowledge for this Outcome)

Factors influencing design decisions

All designers make deliberate decisions during the design process in order to bring their concepts closer to meeting the objectives (audience, purpose, context, constraints, expectations, presentation format) contained in the brief. That’s natural, they won’t get paid if they don’t satisfy the brief!

Our job is to identify decisions designers may have made based on the appearance, function, sustainability, cost and legality of a design. This is not so easy but here are four strategies we can put in place.

  • The elements and principles of design, materials, methods and media used all communicate ideas and contribute to the aesthetic quality of a design
  • The elements and principles of design, materials, methods and media used all assist or detract from the function of a design
  • Members of society, target audiences and clients each have opinions about society, culture, ethics and care for the environment. If a designer is able to produce a visual communication so that it aligns with these people’s expectations then it is more likely to meet the requirements of the brief
  • Minimizing the cost of production or manufacture and distribution has a major impact on a design’s ability to meet the expectations of a brief. As do correct and expedient management of legal (trademark, copyright, IP, design registration, licenses, etc.,) requirements. Ignoring these important components of the design industry practice at the very least results in increased costs for a client and in the worst case, the litigation of the designer and/ or client.

Therefore, decisions made by designers are strongly motivated by these four considerations. We just have to spot them.

Membottle ™

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Memobottle ™ story page

Click the image to visit this page.

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Memo bottle article in A Guide to Visual Communication Design VCE Units 1-4, Jacinta Patterson, Joanne Saville, Second Ed. Cambridge, 2013-17, p251-254.

Aesthetic and functional factors

Banksia Building

Sunbeam café aromatic

Mini Goss children's book

Design elements

Describe decision

Describe decision

Describe decision

Design principles

Describe decision

Describe decision

Describe decision

Materials

Describe decision

Describe decision

Describe decision

Methods or media

Describe decision

Describe decision

Describe decision

Table 1

tasks 8

Aesthetic and functional factors
8.1 describe factors

Using all three of the case study videos identify and describe four decisions the designers made in relation to the the aesthetics or function of the designs. Describe how that decision involved the use or selection of design elements and principles, materials and methods or media. Create a table as shown in ‘Table 1’.

Other factors influencing design decisions

You will be very aware from watching the design case studies that there are many factors shaping the decisions designers make. Take for example, and environmental factor - the wind, influencing the form for the Banksia building. The designers chose to make it rounded to minimise the effect of strong winds being channeled between buildings.

Our task will not refer to the design case studies but will instead look at a sustainable water bottle designed in Australia called Memobottle ™.

Take a look at my Factors shaping design to read about each factor in detail.

Press the link on the right to visit this page.

Other factors influencing design decisions

Social/ cultural

Ethical

Environmental

Economic/ financial

Legal

Rank

Number 1-5

Number 1-5

Number 1-5

Number 1-5

Number 1-5

Evidence

List evidence

List evidence

List evidence

List evidence

List evidence

Table 2

tasks 9

Memobottle ™
9.1 Read about it

Visit the Memobottle ™ story part of their website in the link above and read the article in your text book on p251-254.

9.2 Collect evidence

Create a table similar to the one shown in ‘Table 2’. Collect one piece of evidence that illustrates how the designers were influenced by each of the factors. Write it in on the ‘evidence’ row.

9.3 Evaluate evidence

Consider all of the evidence you have recorded. Rank each factor, from 1-6 where 1 is having the most influence and 6 the least, to determine which factor had the most influence on the design of Memobottle ™.

9.4 Identify and describe decision

Identify and describe one design decision regarding either elements and principles of design, materials, methods or media, in detail that was made as a result of one the six factors’ influence.

Copyright and intellectual property laws

Like all professions, the creative industries have rules, laws and ethics controlling how artists, designers, musicians, photographers and writers work.

You will have heard of the word 'copyright' but do you really know what it means?  Do you know what protections you have as a creative? Do you know how the work of others is protected?

In this section we will briefly explore the law and obligations around copyright as it pertains to intellectual property (IP) for creatives in A

IP explained

On the right you will find a link to a brief presentation about copyright and IP in the design process. Click to watch. Each slide goes for 25 seconds.

Creative commons and public domain

At right are some fantastic resources to help explain Public Domain and Creative Commons.

They are a bit tricky at first. Stick at it.

Press the links on the right to visit these pages and watch the video from creativecommons.org.

Registering designs

Where do you actually go to register a trademark, a design or lodge a patent? What steps have to be followed? How long will it last for?

Press the links on the right to visit these pages.

IP diagram

The assessment tasks for this last section on copyright and IP are to be done by creating an info graphic, similar to the template I have made at right.

You will answer questions in the task section by defining, describing and explaining IP. Position your answers around your infographic to show how they relate to the fields of design.

Make boxes the sizes you need. Mine are only an indication of position and size.

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tasks 10

IP: copyright obligations and rights

Read the directions about answering this task in the section above. A sample template is provided.

10.1 Intellectual Property

Define and explain the term intellectual property.

10.2 Copyright

Define and explain the term copyright. Answer, how you get copyright protection, is it only for adults or professionals how long does it last for? What can be protected – what cant?

10.3 Work of others

Give some examples of others’ IP that might be used by a designer. In what field?

10.4 How do professional designers use the work of others for commercial projects?

When do they need to purchase?

When do they need to seek permission?

When do they need to acknowledge?

10.5 What happens with architects?

Explain how copyright works with architects. Are houses allowed to be copied? What about government buildings?

10.6 Creative commons

Research and find out what public domain and Creative Commons a license means. Describe the difference. Collect an image that is labelled for noncommercial reuse with modification. Explain what this means.

10.7 Using work of others

What are moral rights? Explain how they relate to using the work of others. Use an example of a designer who wants to use an image in a presentation. What obligations must they respect.

10.8 Trademarks

Explain trademarks and registered trademarks. Give three examples of things that can be registered as a trademark. What needs to happen before a trademark can be registered? What protection does registration of a trademark offer the owner.

10.9 Registered designs

Explain registered designs. Give an example of something that can be registered as a design. Explain why copyright doesn’t cover mass produced designs. When can a design be registered?

10.10 Patents

Explain patents. Give an example of something that can be patented. Explain why visual communications are not patented.

10.11 Commercial vs noncommercial

Explain the difference between commercial and noncommercial design. Give an example of each. Explain why copyright holders, of fonts for example, do not license free copies of their fonts for commercial work.

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Evaluation and deeper learning

In this section we will think about the learning we have done. We will review the main topics and evaluate our learning. Follow the steps in the tasks shown here to prepare your folio for presentation and grading.
What have I learnt?

Take a moment to read through the content on this page. Reflect on what you have been introduced to and what you have learnt first time.

Putting it together

Find where you wrote up what you thought the success criteria might be. Check that you have done something for all of the steps you wrote down.

Check the assessment criteria below to see if you have prepared your work for each criteria. If not, take the time to complete it.

Hand up your work on the due date as instructed.

tasks

Evaluation and deeper learning
Complete the evaluation, deeper learning and rating tasks as shown above.
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Assessment criteria

Below is shown a broad indication of the evidence a student should show.

Click here to download a complete assessment rubric for this task

The extent to which the student identifies and explains:

  1. the roles and relationships between designers, specialists and clients in the communication, industrial and environmental design fields
  2. the roles and relationships between designers, specialists and clients in the communication, industrial and environmental design fields
  3. how design decisions are influenced by a range of social, cultural, ethical, legal, financial and environmental factors
  4. practices that acknowledge ethical and legal obligations
  5. Use appropriate terminology

Please note:

To achieve good marks in criteria based assessment you must remember to include some work for each part of the task required. Spread your time evenly across the task.